Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF - Freiburg

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The Fraunhofer IAF conducts research in the field of micro-and nano-structured compound semiconductors, also in combination with Diamond.

Freiburg The Fraunhofer IAF conducts research in the field of micro-and nano-structured compound semiconductors, also in combination with Diamond. Founded in 1957, the institutes 270 employees have a yearly budget of about 27 million € at their disposal for this purpose. The institute’s competencies range from material, design and technology to circuits and modules right up to systems. The IAF business areas transfer ideas from basic research into viable technologies, marketable products or new services. Based on this, the IAF develops high performance transistors and monolithic integrated circuits based on the new compound semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN). These electronic components are characterized by high efficiency, power density, linearity and bandwidth. These are used as robust inverters in plants for the production of renewable energy, in hybrid vehicles and energy-efficient base stations for mobile communications. Infrared photo-detectors are another field of the institute's developmental work. These find application in quality control, industrial production as well as environmental and medical technology.

The IAF develops additional activities through the realization of monolithically integrated microwave and millimeter-wave circuits in III/V compound semiconductor technology. These components, with operating frequencies between 400 MHz and 500 GHz, are used in wireless communication technology systems, sensor technology and radio astronomy. Millimeter waves can penetrate fog, rain and dust, making novel sensors and imaging systems possible.

The institute's work focuses on GaN-based light-emitting diodes for applications in lighting technology. Optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers are implemented based on group III-antimonides and quantum cascade lasers for the infrared spectral range that cover the 2-3 μm or 4-10 μm wavelength ranges. These semiconductor lasers are used in safety engineering, medical technology, as well as production and environmental measurement technology. The IAF also implements micro and nano sensors for applications in radiation, environmental and biosensor technology. For this purpose, materials such as group III-nitrides, diamond and metal oxides are used, which are characterized by their resistance to ionizing radiation, chemical resistance, mechanical hardness and optical transparency. The institute's research activities are certified according to ISO 9001:2008. www.iaf.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut, EMI - Freiburg

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The Ernst-Mach-Institute's mission is to understand the physics of high-speed transient processes in order to derive solutions for industrial applications.

Freiburg The Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut, EMI explores the physics of rapidly occurring processes such as "crash, impact and shock wave phenomena." Applications include materials development and testing to improve building protection, components and structures during dynamic and highly dynamic loads.

The research objectives in the fields of "Defense", "Security", "Space" and "Transport" lie in the research of safety-related components during crash load in the automotive sector, an increase of military protection and civil security, as well as ensuring the safety of satellites, spacecraft and space missions. Furthermore, the EMI works in the business field "New research fields," in which, among other things, it researches whether shock waves are suitable as a possible therapy for the treatment of tumor cells, also working on multiscale material simulation.

Founded in 1959, the institute cooperates with automotive manufacturers and suppliers, architects, urban planners and aerospace companies. In security research, the institute works on projects for the Federal Government and the European Union.

The innovation cluster "Future Urban Security" is an example of regional networking with enterprises and research institutions. Research institutes, universities, industry and government work together to develop innovative technical measures for civil defense, concurrently researching socio-scientific issues.

The Institute's Technological Profile:

■ Laboratory facilities for the acceleration of masses from a few grams up to several hundred kilograms, to speeds of up to 40,000 km/h.
■ Material testing facilities for materials of all kinds.
■ Imaging methods for faster and fastest processes. This includes optical methods, such as microscopes and high-speed cameras, as well as x-ray flash devices with multiple anodes for tomo-cinematography.
■ Sensor systems for measuring physical quantities in harsh, shock wave contaminated environments.
■ High-speed electrotechnology for the measurement and control of high currents and voltages in highest temporal resolutions.
■ Test benches for the examination of vehicles and components with new propulsion technologies under crash loads, which also allow the release and possible chemical reaction of aggregate content, such as hydrogen or battery contents.

Currently, 300 employees are active at the EMI (as of 2011). www.emi.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE - Freiburg

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The Fraunhofer ISE is currently working on the technical requirements for an efficient and environmentally friendly energy supply. The institute develops materials, components, systems and procedures for this purpose.

Freiburg The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE is currently working on the technical requirements for an efficient and environmentally friendly energy supply. For this purpose, the institute develops materials, components, systems and procedures in the following business areas:

■ Energy Efficient Buildings and Building Services Engineering
■ Applied Optics and Functional Surfaces
■ Silicon Photovoltaics
■ Alternative Photovoltaic Technologies
■ Regenerative Power Supply
■ Hydrogen Technology
■ Solar Thermal Energy
■ Photovoltaic Modules, Systems and Reliability

Beyond basic research activities, the institute is involved with the design and development of production technologies and prototypes, as well as the implementation of demonstration facilities and the operation of testing centers. The Institute plans, advises, evaluates and provides expertise and technical equipment for various services. The Fraunhofer ISE was certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 in March 2001.

The Fraunhofer ISE has over 1,100 employees and is the largest solar energy research institute in Europe. The institute's total budget for 2010 amounted to 61.6 million Euros (incl. investments).

Remote Locations

The Fraunhofer ISE Laboratory and Service Center Gelsenkirchen as well as the Center for Silicon Photovoltaic CSP in Halle/Saale and the Technology Center for Semiconductor Materials THM in Freiberg comprise the institute's remote locations dedicated to solar cell or semiconductor material development. The Fraunhofer CSP is operated in cooperation with the Fraunhofer IWM in Freiburg and Halle and the THM in cooperation with the Fraunhofer IISB Erlangen. The newly founded (2008) Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems CSE in Boston contributes to the further development and introduction of established European expertise and technologies in the field of renewable energies for the American market. The focus of activities is solar technology and energy-efficient construction. The work is carried out in close cooperation with scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT. www.ise.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM - Freiburg | Halle

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Fraunhofer IWM provides solutions that define material and component properties that optimize their response to stresses and strains when in use and that make the greatest possible use of their potential.

Freiburg | Halle The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM  provides solutions that define material and component properties that optimize their response to stresses and strains when in use and that make the greatest possible use of their potential. Therefore the behaviour of materials to technology or service induced mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical loads is analyzed. Mechanisms in materials on the atomic, microscopic or macroscopic scale are investigated and simulated.

Range of research and development services
■ Materials characterization, component testing, failure and microstructure analysis
■ Materials modeling, process and component simulation
■ Coatings, tribology, surface analysis and modification
■ Development of processes, manaufacturing technologies and devices

Starting points for the cooperation with Fraunhofer IWM
■ Defects, formation of cracks, deformation, fracture, failure, wear, fatigue
■ Development, manufacture and use of new materials
■ New products with new functionalities
■ New processes, manufacturing technologies and devices

The customers and research partners of Fraunhofer IWM benefit from increased reliability, safety, durability and functionality of technical components and systems, higher quality and production yield, improved usage of material and energy and so reach cost effectiveness and cost savings.

Founded in 1971, Fraunhofer IWM has around 500 employees at its facilities in Freiburg and Halle. Fraunhofer IWM has a DIN certified management system.
Fraunhofer IWM is member of the Fraunhofer Group Materials and the Fraunhofer Alliance Nanotechnology and cooperates amongst others with KIT and University of Freiburg www.iwm.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM - Freiburg | Kaiserslautern

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The Fraunhofer IPM focuses on optical technologies and functional materials; it manufactures specific components in addition to prototypes and operational complete systems for industrial applications.

Freiburg | Kaiserslautern The Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM focuses on optical technologies and functional materials. The Fraunhofer IPM manufactures specific components in addition to prototypes and operational complete systems for industrial applications.

Competencies

Fraunhofer IPM researches and develops optical sensor and imaging systems, as well as thin film technologies. One focus is on spectroscopy, in particular UV-Vis, NIR, MIR and Terahertz spectroscopy; semiconductor gas sensor technology and thin film technology form additional important mainstays. Core competencies in optical technologies include laser exposure, rapid distance, as well as 2-D and 3-D metrology and holography. The institute is a leader in materials research, simulation and systems design in the field of thermoelectrics.

Business Areas

Fraunhofer IPM develops innovative technical solutions for process measurement, production control and quality testing and strives to increase process energy efficiency. Fraunhofer IPM places its diverse expertise into security technologies that can be used to prevent terrorist attacks, to limit damage as a result of accidents and incidents, or to protect document and product counterfeiting. A significant contribution can be made to the Fraunhofer future topics surrounding environment and health through bio, gas and liquid analysis, emission monitoring and environmental analysis.

Data

Fraunhofer IPM was founded in Freiburg in 1973; a second site exists in Kaiserslautern since 2005. Research and development is divided into four departments:

■ Analytical Measurement Systems Dept.
■ Optical Production Measurement Technology Dept.
■ Thermoelectrics and Integrated Sensor Systems Dept. (all Freiburg) as well as
■ Terahertz Metrology and Systems Dept. (Kaiserslautern).

About 200 employees in science, technology and administration work at both institute locations. Fraunhofer IPM is ISO 9001 certified. www.ipm.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM - Kaiserslautern

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The Fraunhofer ITWM provides enterprises with mathematical tools for product improvement, process optimization and troubleshooting. The institute's main activities are surface inspection, financial mathematics, visualizing large amounts of data, optimization of production processes, virtual material design and analysis of 3D microstructures.

Kaiserslautern The Fraunhofer Institute for Technological and Industrial Mathematics ITWM provides enterprises with mathematical tools for product improvement, process optimization and troubleshooting as a path to a customized solution.
The institute's main activities are surface inspection, financial mathematics, visualizing large amounts of data, optimization of production processes, virtual material design and analysis of 3D microstructures. These fields are currently being processed by about 220 employees and about 160 scientific assistants in eight departments (as of July 2011):

■ Transportation Processes (Core competencies: Mathematical modeling of complex industrial problems and development of efficient algorithms for their numerical solution)
■ Flow and Material Simulation (Core competencies: Development, deployment and specific application of efficient and robust multiscale and multiphysics methods)
■ Image Processing (Core competencies: Surface inspection, spatial image analysis and modeling of microstructures, signal analysis for railway systems as well as ultrasound imaging)
■ System Analysis, Prognosis and Control (Core competencies: Monitoring, control of computer-aided analog circuit design, multi-scale structural mechanics)
■ Optimization (Core competencies: Research and allocation of models, simulations and mathematical methods for optimization in industry and services)
■ Financial Mathematics (Core competences: Options assessment, portfolio optimization, interest modeling and credit ratings)
■ Mathematical Methods in Dynamics and Durability (Core competencies: Demand statistics and numerical simulation of dynamics and mechanical systems durability)
■ Competence Center High Performance Computing (Core competency: Software development for parallel computing systems - from the embedded multicore chip to cloud systems)

Together with enterprise experts, for example, a mathematical model of the problem is created that can be analyzed with computers. Customized simulations, on the other hand, detect a solution that meets enterprise requirements. As a Fraunhofer ITWM competency, the mathematical approach to practical problems may ideally compliment engineering and business operations.

The ITWM's total budget was approximately 17 million € in 2010, more than 40 percent of the revenue comes from industrial contracts. The ITWM was founded in 1995 and was incorporated into the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in 2001 as the first institute with a focus on mathematics. The Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM is a member of the Fraunhofer Group, "Information and communications technology", as well as a guest in the Fraunhofer Alliance "Materials". In addition, the ITWM is involved in the Fraunhofer Alliances "Adaptronics", "Energy", "Grid Computing", "Numerical Simulation of Products and Processes", "SysWasser", "Traffic," "Vision" (image processing), "Cloud Computing" and the "AutoMOBILE Production Alliance". www.itwm.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, Systems Engineering and Image Analysis IOSB - Karlsruhe | Ettlingen

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Core competencies of IOSB are optronics, systems engineering and image analysis. The Institute is concerned with the solution of problems characterized by heterogeneous data and large amounts of information in complex distributed systems.

Karlsruhe | Ettlingen Optronics, systems engineering and image processing are the three core technological competencies of the Fraunhofer-Instituts für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung (Fraunhofer-Institute for Optronics, Systems Engineering and Image Analysis). Thus, the IOSB has a broad knowledge spectrum on physics, laser pulses, communications engineering, computer science and technology up to the interaction between humans and machines, which puts the institution in a position to solve problems characterized by heterogeneous data and large amounts of information in complex distributed systems. This could be the use of an airport surveillance system, an integrated automation of industrial production or the image-based sorting of minerals and foods.

IOSB developments can be found in the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft LUNA of the German Bundeswehr as well as in the production control for the Mercedes C-Class at the Daimler plant in Bremen, diamond-sorting facilities in South Africa or in the environment portal of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Even in comprehensive expert information systems, environment portals and resource management applications, IOSB brings in its expertise. For disaster management, a pioneering demonstration center is available as a crisis control center in Karlsruhe. In the near future, the institute intends to expand underwater robotics and "distant biometrics", i.e. laser-based remote diagnostics for e.g. wind turbines or to survey existing buildings.

Strategically, the institute focuses on the five business areas "Automation", "Energy, Water and Environment", "Inspection and Visual Inspection", "Defense" and "Public Safety". In addition to its headquarters in Karlsruhe and Ettlingen, there are the Application Center for System Technology AST in Ilmenau, the Competence Center for Industrial Automation INA in Lemgo, and an office in Beijing.

370 employees work at the IOSB, which formed from a merger of two predecessor institutions in 2010. Approximately 120 student assistants support them. The annual budget amounts to approximately 37 million €, (basic funding 1/3) www.iosb.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI - Karlsruhe

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The Fraunhofer ISI stands for future research, policy advice and system innovations. It helps its customers in the promotion, identification and implementation of technical innovations and service-related, organizational and process innovations.

Karlsruhe The Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung ISI (Fraunhofer-Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI) advises its clients based on scientific research results in strategic business decisions. Scientists identify emerging issues that are critical to the competitiveness of companies; they analyze these challenges and present strategies to overcome them. With a systemic view of technologies and markets, they present complex relationships in the dynamic environment of companies and develop policy options.

The main research areas combine in the six specialized "Competence Centers" (CC) Energy Policy and Energy Systems, Industrial and Service Innovations, Innovation- and Technology-Management and -Foresight, Sustainability and Infrastructure Systems, New Technologies, Politics and Regions. Each CC works primarily its central research topics. Many projects such as in the fields of nanotechnology are also handled cross-CC and viewed from different points of views - reflecting the systemic and extensive nature of the institute's innovation research work.

Currently, about 200 employees with diverse disciplinary backgrounds in science, technology and administration are working on fulfilling the needs of clients from business, politics, science and society with scientific competence and a systemic approach in research. In 2010, the ISI has processed 350 projects and increased its budget to 20 million €www.isi.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP - Stuttgart | Holzkirchen | Kassel

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The Fraunhofer IBP focuses on research, development, testing, demonstration and consulting in the fields of building physics.

Stuttgart | Holzkirchen | Kassel The tasks of the Fraunhofer IBP focus on research, development, testing, demonstration and consulting in the fields of building physics. These include, for instance, protection against noise and sound insulation in buildings, optimizing the acoustics in auditoriums, measures to increase energy efficiency and optimization of lighting technology, questions of indoor climate, hygiene, health and building materials issues and aspects of heat, humidity and weather protection, building maintenance and historic preservation. The department for holistic accounting analyses products, processes and services under environmental, social and technical aspects. The research fields of building chemistry, biology and hygiene and the working area of concrete technology complete the service range of physical construction of the institute. An established project group in Kassel enhances the existing activities in the areas of energy efficiency and the development of plant and machinery components.

Fraunhofer IBP works with industry partners to launch new and environmentally friendly building materials, components and building systems. The traditional customer base includes global enterprises, especially the construction industry, mechanical and plant engineering, building contractors and architects, planners and government agencies, public and private building research. The application of structural-physical skills to adjacent disciplines enlarges the circle of partners from the automotive and aerospace industry. Efficient laboratories, test facilities, and the field trial at the institute in Holzkirchen enable for complex structural-physical studies. Modern laboratory instrumentation and computational methods accompany the development and optimize the construction for practical use. Studies in model rooms, in the test area and completed objects are used for structural-physical testing of components and complete systems for new construction and for renovation.

Fraunhofer IBP, which employs 173 employees (as of 7/2011) is a "recognized body by building authorities" for testing, inspection and certification of construction products and buildings in Germany and Europe. Four laboratories of the institute received the flexible accreditation according to DIN EN/ISO/IEC 17025 from the German Accreditation System for Testing. Thus, they are entitled to develop new procedures or modify existing ones. www.ibp.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT - Pfintzal

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Among other things, the Fraunhofer ICT addresses the possible use of nanomaterials and the integration of nano-technologies into existing systems, as well as process and material processing techniques for the production of plastic products.

Pfinztal The Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT works on application-oriented research tasks together with enterprises or on their behalf. The possible uses of nanomaterials stand in focus in numerous projects. For example, the product range "Polymer Engineering" is involved with the integration of nanomaterial technologies into existing systems in its main work fields "Fiber Composites" and "New Materials“, as well as processes and processing techniques for the production of plastic products. Another area of operation is the supply of basic knowledge for the development of fire protection coatings using nanoscale materials. The Fraunhofer ICT succeeded with the integration of antibiotic nano-silver in a cooperation project with the Oberhausen company Bioni, in the area of supplemental functionalization of emulsion paints. The Fraunhofer ICT offers its project partners a comprehensive range of services and technologies for the manufacture, processing, characterization and testing of nanoparticles. www.ict.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing - Saarbrücken | Dresden

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The physical methods of nondestructive testing, characterization of materials and the control and monitoring of manufacturing processes and plant components are in the focus of the Fraunhofer IZFP R&D activities.

Saarbrücken | Dresden The Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP provides the industry with its services where security-related statements and proof of quality with reliable quality testing technologies is required. The methodological expertise includes physical process fundamentals, sensor technology, apparatus engineering, handling techniques, techniques for evaluation of results and documentation, as well as qualification and validation of new test applications and testing equipment, including equipment maintenance, training and testing services. The institute's strategic focus lies on the areas transport with the business areas traffic, railway / tracks, aerospace, and new industries with the business areas including electronics / micro-systems / nanotechnology, and environment / energy / life sciences and industrial plants.

At present, the IZFP has 200 permanent employees, including 91 scientists, 50 engineers and 15 technicians. The total operating budget is about 26 million €, of which more than 10 million € are generated from industry revenues. The IZFP is a member of the Fraunhofer Group for "Materials and Parts" and a guest at the Fraunhofer Alliance "Microelectronics".

In the field of surface technology, the non-destructive determination of surface defects, hardness, hardness depth, residual stress and gradients thereof, of texture and moisture stand in focus at the institute in Saarbrücken. The IZFP Saarbrücken is a DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accredited provider for non-destructive material and component testing, with the process variants ultrasound, eddy current, micromagnetics, thermography, X-ray laminography and NMR one-sided access techniques.

The Dresden branch offers process engineering for nanoanalytics, applications and services using nano X-ray microscopy, nano X-ray tomography, electron and ion microscopy, nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. Eddy current techniques are developed for large-scale process quality monitoring of thin films in photovoltaics, allowing a real-time determination of layer thickness in multilayer systems. Novel methods using nano-diamonds are employed in corrosion protection and monitoring tasks. Optical methods for the characterization of mechanical, optical, biological and chemical properties of thin layers and surfaces include ellipsometry, speckle photometry, Raman microscopy and fluorescence measurements. The Dresden IZFP applies a management system in accordance with the DIN EN ISO 9001:2008 standard for the scope of research and development in the fields of microelectronics and nanotechnology for non-destructive testing, medical and safety technology. www.izfp.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Information Center for Planning and Building IRB - Stuttgart

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As a mechanism for the national and international transfer of construction expertise, the Fraunhofer IRB ensures access to relevant scientific and practical information from all areas of planning and construction.

Stuttgart The Fraunhofer Information Center for Planning and Building IRB exploits technical, planning and economic-related expertise from research and practice in the civil engineering, architecture, construction planning, construction industry, urban development, housing and regional planning branches, providing this information to a broad specialist audience. The center's most important task is the objective and neutral knowledge transfer in planning and construction between all parties involved.

Areas of specialization include:

■ Structural Damage
■ Structural Monument Preservation and Building Restoration
■ Building Refurbishment
■ Energy Efficient Retrofitting
■ Energy Efficiency
■ Sustainable Planning and Construction
■ Practical Implementation of Building Research Results

Expertise for Fraunhofer IRB customers can be accessed at any time through the selection of appropriate information sources and the evaluation of technical criteria. Different products in database, print, and service areas help facilitate access.

The Fraunhofer IRB cooperates with numerous organizations, scientific associations, chambers and specialized institutions including those from abroad. Personalities from these institutions are represented in the IRB board of trustees.

In addition, the Fraunhofer IRB is also the center point for the verification of interdisciplinary scientific publications within the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. It supports various Fraunhofer Institute authors in all aspects of academic publishing with its knowledge in the publishing, database and service sectors. The Fraunhofer Verlag publishes books and brochures that originated from the work performed at the various Fraunhofer institutes. The Fraunhofer IRB has approximately 100 employees. www.irb.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB - Stuttgart

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The Fraunhofer IGB develops and optimizes processes and products for the medical, pharmaceutical, chemical, environmental, and energy business areas.

Stuttgart The Fraunhofer IGB addresses a wide range of issues in the areas of interfacial engineering and materials science, molecular biotechnology, physical process technology, environmental biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, as well as cellular systems. The institute develops and optimizes processes and products for the medical, pharmaceutical, chemical, environmental, and energy business areas. They have 268 employees and a total budget of € 19.7 million (2010).

Interfacial Engineering and Materials Science

One focus of the Materials Science and Interface Technology department is the deposition of thin and ultra-thin layers to improve adhesion or bonding, to reduce abrasion or corrosion or the targeted adjustment of barrier characteristics. Another focus is the functionalization of nanomaterials for applications in medicine and pharmacy, or for separation processes in chemistry. With substrates, our focus lies on polymers, however we also use selected inorganic substrates. In addition to the issues of scalability, the focus in process development is structure design with internal interfaces in composite materials.

Established Production Methods

■ Deposition of thin films using chemical and physical methods from the gas phase (plasma method, vaporization, sputtering, parylene deposition)
■ Nanoparticle deposition using different polymerization techniques
■ Membrane production using sol-gel processing and sintering
■ Deposition of thin layers using layer-by-layer methods or by means of self-assembly monolayers (SAM)
■ Application of thin polymeric films through spin coating
■ Deposition of nanofibers through electrospinning

Range of Services

■ Process development for plasma modification of surfaces
■ Layer development for protective coatings (scratch and corrosion protection), barriers against permeation, layers as a reservoir for the controlled release of substances (formulations)
■ Surface functionalization (chemical and biochemical)
■ Development of plasma cleaning processes and plasma sterilization processes
■ Synthesis and preparation of nanostructured materials with custom made surfaces
■ Development of novel formulations through core-shell particles
■ Characterization of nanoparticles, measurement of particle size and particle size distribution with optical methods or in an electric field
■ Development of membranes and membrane modules
■ Production and testing of membranes in pilot scale
■ Surface and layer characterization
■ Process and plant development
■ Up-scaling of laboratory processes to produce thin layers on large scale formats and scaling of nanoparticle production into larger volumes
www.igb.fraunhofer.de